Input: Raw oil, commonly referred to as crude oil, is a naturally occurring, unrefined petroleum product composed of hydrocarbon deposits and other organic materials. This viscous liquid is extracted from the earth through oil drilling and is a fossil fuel that can be refined into various forms of fuels and other petrochemical products. Crude oil’s composition varies widely based on its geographic origin and the mixture of hydrocarbons it contains, which determines its suitability for different refinements and applications. The quality of crude oil is often categorized by its viscosity (light, medium, heavy), sulfur content (sweet or sour), and its API gravity—a measure of how heavy or light the oil is compared to water.
Output: The output from processing raw oil can take many forms, as crude oil undergoes a series of refining processes to separate and transform it into usable products. The refining process typically involves distillation, where the crude oil is heated and the different hydrocarbons are separated based on their boiling points. The primary outputs include gasoline (petrol), diesel, jet fuel, heating oil, and asphalt for roads. Additionally, refining can yield various types of lubricants, waxes, and petrochemicals used to make plastics, detergents, and a wide range of other consumer products. The exact output mix can vary based on the refinery configuration, the type of crude oil being processed, and market demand for different products.