Liposomes are spherical vesicles consisting of one or more phospholipid bilayers, which can encapsulate a variety of substances such as drugs, enzymes, vaccines, or genetic material. These artificial vesicles are created when phospholipids, which have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties, are dispersed in an aqueous medium, leading to the formation of bilayer structures due to the hydrophobic tails facing inward and the hydrophilic heads facing outward towards the water. Liposomes are particularly significant in the field of drug delivery as they can improve the therapeutic index of drugs by enhancing their efficacy and reducing toxicity. Their unique structure allows them to merge with cellular membranes, facilitating the delivery of their cargo directly into the cell’s interior. Moreover, the characteristics of liposomes, such as size, charge, and composition, can be manipulated to control their behavior in vivo, including their circulation time and biodistribution. This adaptability makes liposomes an essential tool in the targeted delivery of pharmaceutical agents, and they are the subject of extensive research for their potential applications in treating a wide range of diseases, from cancer to infectious diseases.
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