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Isomers are molecules that share the same molecular formula but differ in the arrangement of their atoms. This phenomenon is a fascinating aspect of chemistry, as it reveals that the mere number of atoms of each element present in a compound is not sufficient to determine the compound’s structure and properties. Isomers can be broadly categorized into two main types: structural isomers and stereoisomers. Structural isomers, also known as constitutional isomers, have different covalent arrangements of their atoms. For instance, the compounds butane and isobutane both have the molecular formula C4H10, yet they differ in the connectivity of their carbon atoms, leading to distinct physical and chemical properties. On the other hand, stereoisomers have the same covalent arrangements but differ in the spatial orientation of their atoms. These can be further divided into enantiomers, which are mirror images of each other and cannot be superimposed, and diastereomers, which are not mirror images and include geometric isomers like cis and trans configurations around double bonds or rings. The study of isomers is crucial in various fields such as organic chemistry, pharmacology, and materials science because the different arrangements of atoms in isomers can lead to vastly different behaviors and functions, even though the same types and numbers of atoms are present.

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