The term “clone” refers to an organism or a group of organisms that are genetically identical to the original source from which they were derived. Cloning can occur naturally, as in the case of identical twins, or it can be a product of artificial processes. In the context of biotechnology, cloning involves the replication of genetic material to create a new cell, tissue, or organism with the same genetic makeup as the original. This process can be achieved through various techniques, one of which is somatic cell nuclear transfer, where the nucleus of a donor cell is inserted into an enucleated egg cell, leading to the development of an embryo that is genetically identical to the donor organism. Cloning has significant implications in the fields of medicine, agriculture, and conservation, as it provides a method for reproducing exact genetic copies of organisms that may possess desirable traits or require preservation. However, the ethical and social considerations surrounding cloning, particularly of humans, have sparked considerable debate and have led to the establishment of regulations and guidelines in many countries to govern its practice.
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