CB2 receptors, or cannabinoid receptor type 2, are a class of cell membrane receptors within the endocannabinoid system that play a pivotal role in regulating various physiological processes. They are primarily found on the cells of the immune system, including the microglia in the central nervous system, and to a lesser extent, in some neurons and other tissues. CB2 receptors are activated by endogenous cannabinoids produced by the body, such as 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA), as well as by plant-derived cannabinoids like THC and CBD, which are found in cannabis. Upon activation, CB2 receptors influence the release of cytokines and can modulate immune cell migration and proliferation, thereby contributing to the immune response and inflammation regulation. Unlike CB1 receptors, which are predominantly located in the brain and associated with psychoactive effects, CB2 receptors are not typically involved in modulating neurotransmission within the central nervous system. Therefore, they are of particular interest in developing therapeutic agents that can harness the medicinal properties of cannabinoids without eliciting the psychoactive effects that are typically associated with cannabis use. Research into CB2 receptors continues to uncover their potential in treating a variety of conditions, including pain, inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, and even certain types of cancer, making them a significant focus of pharmacological research and drug development.